Barack Obama prezidentem

7. září 2009 v 10:13 | peace


  • The President of the United States, and the first African-American elected.
  • Президент Соединенных Штатов Америки и первый Афроамеричанин на посту президента Америки.
  • Prezident Spojených států a první Afroameričan, který usedl na prezidentské křeslo v USA.

Президенство Барака Обамы

Президенство Барака Обамы началось в полночь по EST времени 20 января 2009 года. Он - 44й Президент США. Обама, бывший сенатор США от штата Иллинойс, обошёл сенатора от Аризоны Джона Маккейна на президентских выборах 2008, став первым в истории афроамериканцем, избранным на пост Президента. Промежуточный период начался, когда Обама был выбран президентом 4 ноября 2008 года. Во время промежуточного периода Обама озвучил состав Кабинета и Администрации Президента США. Вскоре после выборов 4 ноября Обама выбрал представителя штата Иллинойс Рама Эммануэля в качестве главы администрации Белого дома. В Кабинет вошли бывшие соперники по праймериз: Хиллари Родхэм Клинтон в качестве Государственного Секретаря и Билл Ричардсон в качестве главы Департамента Торговли США. 1 декабря Обама объявил, что желает видеть Роберта Гейтса на посту министра обороны, это первый случай, когда министр обороны принадлежит партии, отличной от партии президента. Во время промежуточного периода обновляется сайт Change.gov, в котором Обама вел блог и размещал видео. Сразу после иннаугурации информация с этого сайта была перенесена на официальный сайт Белого дома Whitehouse.gov.


Prezidentská kandidatura Baracka Obamy

Dne 10. února 2007 ve Springfieldu v Illinois Barack Obama oficiálně oznámil, že se bude ucházet o nominaci Demokratické strany do prezidentských voleb v roce 2008. Jeho strategie byla založená na využití internetu, přes který dostal drobné finační dary od milionů občanů. Nominačního klání se pak zúčastnil spolu s dalšími kandidáty, z nichž největší podporu získala Hillary Clintonová. Zvítězil především díky podpoře mladších, vzdělanějších voličů a afroameričanů (více než 90 % afroameričanů sympatizovalo s Obamou). Menší podporu měl u starších a manuálně pracujících občanů (zde o několik procentních bodů vedl v předvolebních průzkumech kandidát RS) a také u žen a katolíků.

Po posledních primárkách Demokratické strany (3. června 2008) v Jižní Dakotě a Montaně získal Barack Obama definitivně nominaci na prezidentskou kandidaturu (tedy překročil hranici potřebných 2118 delegátů), která mu byla oficiálně přidělena na srpnovém sjezdu Demokratické strany (25. - 28. srpna 2008) v Pepsi Centru v Denveru (Colorado). Stal se tak vůbec prvním oficiálním kandidátem jedné ze dvou největších stran, který nemá bílou barvu pleti.

Dne 23. srpna 2008 oznámil, že za kandidáta na místo viceprezidenta USA za Demokraty si vybral delawareského senátora Joe Bidena, který mj. v Senátu zastává post předsedy Výboru pro zahraniční záležitosti.

Dne 4. listopadu 2008 zvítězil v prezidentských volbách, když porazil republikánského kandidáta Johna McCaina. Po vítězství v prezidentských volbách dne 16. listopadu 2008 na křeslo senátora rezignoval. Obama se stal 43. mužem v úřadu a 44. prezidentem USA. Historicky je vůbec prvním afroamerickým prezidentem Spojených států amerických. 20. ledna složil za přítomnosti téměř dvou milionů lidí ve Washingtonu D. C. slavnostní přísahu a ujal se funkce.

Při své první cestě do Evropy počátkem dubna 2009 se nejprve zúčastnil summitu skupiny G20 v Londýn, poté summitu NATO ve Štrasburku a 4. a 5. dubna summitu USA-Evropská unie v Praze. Zde na Hradčanském náměstí přednesl projev, který se týkal převážně problematiky jaderného odzbrojování a který vyslechlo asi 30 000 lidí.

Ожидания

Начиная с Франклина Рузвельта, первые 100 дней новой администрации были показателем намерений и эффективности президента США. 100 первых дней Обамы закончились 29 апреля. В его интервью с 60 minutes, он сказал, что внимательно изучал «100 дней» Рузвельта. Однако он также добавил, что «100 дней важны, однако что-то могут изменить только первые 1000 дней&raquo. Несмотря на это, первые 100 дней Обамы были предметом явного интереса ещё тогда, когда он стал фактическим кандидатом от Демократической Партии. Несколько новостных гигантов объявили о проектах, сделанных для освещения этого события. Комментаторы прикидывают его шансы справиться с проблемами во внутренней и внешней политике, разобраться в экономических и экологических вопросах. CNN представило список экономических вопросов, которые «Обама и его команда должны решить в первые 100 дней&raquo. Разработка пакета государственных мер по борьбе с финансовым кризисом позиционируется как самая главная задача в настоящее время.
Клайв Смит, британский юрист по правам человека, надеется, что Обама закроет лагерь Гуантанамо в первые 100 дней президентства.

источник: wikipedia

source: wikipedia


Где вы сможете найти еще Барака Обаму:

Результаты голосований и прочее. The first politician of USA. Political situation, polls about politics and voting preference. Online election Уникальный инструмент, целью которого является повышение информированности общественности о политиках и политических партиях, которые влияют на нашу повседневную жизнь. Vote, rating and monitoring of the political preferences Присоединитесь к сообществу пользователей, которые хотят создать общественный форум для свободного политического выбора. Election(s)Meter Discussion Forum Результаты общественного мнения. Онлайн голосования насчет политики и политиков. Election(s)Meter - Sitemap of Elections, politicians, polls, public opinions Присоединитесь к сообществу пользователей, которые хотят создать общественный форум для свободного политического выбора. Elections, politicians, polls, public opinions on Facebook Обзор глобальной политики. External sitemap of Elections, politicians, polls, public opinions Links to Elections, politicians, polls, public opinions Политики и выборы. Голосуйте свободно Links to Public opinion analyses, Elections, politicians, polls Результаты голосований и прочее. Links to Best links to Elections, politicians, polls, public opinions Обзор и результаты голосований. Links to Politicians, polls, public opinions, elections ...


Kde ještě můžete potkat Baracka Obamu na webu:

Veřejné mínění online. Hlasujte ihned! Elections, politicians, polls, public opinions on Facebook
Místo, kde informace, hodnocení, dialog a interakce tvoří demokratickou volbu, která v konečném důsledku ovlivňuje politiky a jejich preference. External sitemap of Elections, politicians, polls, public opinions
Veřejné mínění online. Hlasujte ihned! Links to Elections, politicians, polls, public opinions
Výsledky výzkumu veřejného názoru. Online politická hlasování. Links to Public opinion analyses, Elections, politicians, polls
Politiké analýzy. Online volby. Links to Best links to Elections, politicians, polls, public opinions
Místo, kde informace, hodnocení, dialog a interakce tvoří demokratickou volbu, která v konečném důsledku ovlivňuje politiky a jejich preference. Links to Politicians, polls, public opinions, elections


Барак Обама в новостях (Barack Obama ve světových médiích):

Obama and the Perfect Political Storm на The Wall Street Journal
Why the Obama Administration Will Implode In Weeks на FOX News
Obama to chair UN Security Council session on nuclear disarmament на Earth Times
Report: Obama, Incoming Japanese PM Speak by Phone на Voice of America
Fresh Off Victory, Japanese Party Flexes Muscle на The New York Times


Фотки Барака Обамы (Fotky s Barackem Obamou):


Барак Обама и Супермен



Барак Обама


Если хотите проголосовать за или против него, то нажмите на его имя в начале этой записи.

Pokud chcete hlasovat pro nebo proti němu, klikněte na jméno Baracka Obamy na začátku tohoto příspěvku.
 

Vladimir Putin a Dmitry Medveděv - nejpopulárnější politici v Rusku

3. září 2009 v 15:59 | peace
Hlasujte online o popularitě těchto dvou ruských politiků. Můžete mimojiné psát své komentáře a připomínky ohledně Vaší spokojenosti nebo nespokojenosti s jejich vládou, vkládat zajímavé články a odkazy, týkající se Putina a Medveděva.


Дмитрий Медведев - Dmitry Medveděv



C 2 марта 2008 президент Российской Федерации.
The current President of Russia.
Od 2. března 2008 je Medveděv ve funkci prezidenta Ruské Federace.


Život

Otec Medveděva Anatolij Afanasievič Medveděv byl profesorem v Leningradském technologickém institutu. Matka Julia Veniaminovna rozená Šapošnikovová je filoložka, přednáší na Pedagogickém institutu A. I. Gercena, dříve pracovala jako průvodkyně v muzeu. Dmitrij Anatolijevič Medveděv byl jediným potomkem v rodině. Spolu s rodiči žil v bytě v dělnické čtvrti Kupčino na okraji Leningradu. Studoval na právnické fakultě tehdejší Leningradské státní univerzity, na katedře občanského práva. Zajímal se o vzpírání, ve kterém i reprezentoval školu.

V roce 1990 dokončil svoji aspiranturu a získal titul kandidát věd. V letech 1990 až 1999 vyučoval na Leningradské univerzitě, tu v té době přejmenovali spolu s městem Petrohrad. Současně v letech 1990 až 1995 pracoval jako poradce Petrohradského magistrátu Anatolija Sobčaka, kde působil na oddělení pro styk s veřejností. Byl bezprostředním podřízeným Vladimíra Putina. V Smoľnom vypracovával smlouvy, dohody a investiční projekty. Byl na stáži v orgánech samosprávy ve Švédsku. V roce 1998 sa stal předsedou správní rady Bratrského lesoprůmyslového kombinátu, velkého průmyslového komplexu, zabývajícího se těžbou a zpracováním dřeva.

Během roku 1999 se dostal spolu se skupinou lidí z Petrohradu, kterou přivedl Vladimir Putin po odstoupení Jelcina, do vrcholních státních postů v Moskvě. Od června roku 2000 byl předsedou správní rady firmy Gazprom. Ve stejném roce se stal také vedoucím kanceláře prezidenta Ruské federace, vedl předvolební štáb Putina. Od 14. listopadu 2005 byl náměstkem předsedy vlády Ruské federace. Dne 10. prosince 2007 vyhlásila strana Jednotné Rusko a další strany, že podpoří jeho kandidaturu na post prezidenta ve volbách v roce 2008. Dne 7. března 2008 vyhrál v prezidentských volbách, když získal 70,28 % právoplatných hlasů voličů. Dne 7. května 2008 nastoupil na post prezidenta Ruské federace.

Medveděv se v roce 1989 oženil se svojí láskou z dětství Světlanou Vladimirovnou Linnikovou. V roce 1996 se jim narodil syn Ilja. Medveděv má rád hard-rock, je milovník kapel Deep Purple, Black Sabbath, Pink Floyd a Led Zeppelin. Sbírá jejich originální vinylové desky a sám o sobě hovoří, že vlastní všechny nahrávky Deep Purple. Tyto kapely poslouchal ještě jako mladý, sbíral jejich nahrávky i v období, kdy se tyto kapely ocitly na černé listině státem zakázaných projevů západní kultury. V únoru 2008 se Medveděv spolu se Sergejem Ivanovem ukázal na koncertě Deep Purple v Moskvě. I přes nabitý program se nejméně hodinu ráno a hodinu večer věnuje plavání a návštěvám posilovny. Podle vícero názorů je Medveděv člověk mírné povahy s mírně liberálními a pragmatickými názory, schopný organizátor a příznivec Vladimira Putina.

source: wikipedia

Dmitry Medveděv jinde v síti:

viz: Kde jinde můžete najít V.V.Putina?

Dmitry Medveděv ve světových médiích:

Daily Times - Medvedev blasts Ukraine, Baltic states over WWII
ITAR-TASS - Medvedev satisfied with development of strategic partnership with India
Telegraph.co.uk - Russia's President Dmitry Medvedev changes tack over Ukraine
FOX News - Medvedev: Finding Killers of Slain Activists Is Top Priority


Владимир Путин - Vladimir Putin


Бывший президент и нынешний Премьер министр России.
Former President of Russia and the current Prime Minister of Russia.
Bývalý prezident a nynější premier Ruska.

Život

Narodil se 7. října 1952 v sovětském Leningradu. Jeho rodiče byly oba dělníci, otec bojoval jako člen Rudé armády v druhé světové válce, matka zůstala a přežila celou blokádu Leningradu. Putin měl i dva sourozence, narozené ve 30. letech, jeden bratr ovšem zemřel pár měsíců po narození, a druhý na záškrt při německé blokádě Leningradu. Roku 1975 dostudoval práva na leningradské Státní univerzitě. V průběhu studia na vysoké škole se stal členem KGB a KSSS, jejichž členem zůstal až do rozpadu Sovětského svazu roku 1991. V letech 1985-1990 působil jako sovětský špión na území NDR v Drážďaněch. 28. července 1983 se oženil s Ludmilou Alexandrovnou Škrebněvovou, učitelkou španělštiny a bývalou letuškou. Mají dvě dcery: Marii, narozenou roku 1985 a Jekaterinu, narozenou roku 1986.

source: wikipedia

Kde jinde můžete najít V.V.Putina:

Hlasujte pro změnu, Online referendum Первый политик. Политическая ситуация, голосование о политиках и политических предпочтениях. Онлайн голосование. Politiké analýzy. Online volby. Голосование, оценка и мониторинг политических предпочтений Demokratickou formou může každý volně a svobodně vyjádřit politické preference a veřejné mínění. Election(s)Meter - Blog Hlasujte pro změnu, Online referendum Election(s)Meter - Sitemap of Elections, politicians, polls, public opinions Odkazy k zajištění politické rovnováhy, umožňuje zastoupení různým politickým ideálům a potvrzuje tak závazek čestnosti a nestrannosti. Election(s)Meter Discussion Forum Následující je věnované světové veřejnosti proto, aby se každý jednotlivec mohl osobně a aktivně podílet svým názorem a přáním na skutečné politice. Elections, politicians, polls, public opinions on Facebook Volební přehledy a výsledky. External sitemap of Elections, politicians, polls, public opinions Spojte se s komunitou uživatelů, která se zapojuje, aby vytvořila veřejné fórum pro svobodnou politickou volbu. Links to Elections, politicians, polls, public opinions Aktivně vyjádřete své demokratické právo Links to Public opinion analyses, Elections, politicians, polls Demokratickou formou může každý volně a svobodně vyjádřit politické preference a veřejné mínění. Links to Best links to Elections, politicians, polls, public opinions Spojte se s komunitou uživatelů, která se zapojuje, aby vytvořila veřejné fórum pro svobodnou politickou volbu. Links to Politicians, polls, public opinions, elections

Putin ve světových médiích:

The New York Times - V.V.Putin
BBC News - Polish, Russian press welcome Putin gesture
HAARETZ.com - Finland asks Putin to explain nabbed ship incident
EURASIANET.com - GEORGIA: PUTIN IS KEEPING AN EYE ON TBILISI
REUTERS - Putin dashes to Chechnya, shows support for Kadyrov
guardian.co.uk - The second world war: the honourable road to ruin

Deset nejoblíbenějších politiků v USA

3. září 2009 v 15:55 | peace
V tomto příspěvku se nachází 10 nejpopulárnějších politiků ve Spojených Státech. Kliknutím na jméno politika či političky budete přesměrováni na mezinárodní politický hlasovací portál Electionsmeter.com, kde po přihlášení budete moci nejen hlasovat, ale i komentovat, vkládat příspěvky a odkazy týkající se daného politika či političky.


African American clergyman, activist and prominent leader in the American civil rights movement. Afroamerický kněz, aktivista a prominentní vůdce amerického hnutí za občanská práva.

The thirty-second President of the United States.
32. prezident Spojených států amerických.

The first President of the United States of America (1789-1797).
První prezident USA.

The thirty-fifth President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. 35. prezident Spojených států úřadující od roku 1961. Byl zavražděn v roce 1963.

Former US Representative and the 2008 Green Party nominee for President of the United States. Bývalá americká poslankyně a v roce 2008 kandidátka Strany zelených na prezidenta Spojených států.

President of the United States, and the first African-American elected. Současný prezident USA a první zvolený Afroameričan v historii Spojených států.

The communications director for U.S. Senator Barack Obama and Obama's 2008 presidential campaign.
Mluvčí Bílého domu, a zástupce pro prezidentskou kampaň zvoleného prezidenta Baraka Obamy.

Joseph Robinette "Joe" Biden, Jr. is the senior United States Senator from Delaware.
Je současným 47. viceprezidentem USA a vůbec prvním římským katolíkem v tomto úřadu.

Democratic politician and the current Governor of New Mexico.
Demokrat a současný guvernér Nového Mexika.

Clinton is the junior United States Senator from New York and was a candidate in the 2008 presidential elections.
Bývalá manželka Billa Clintona a kandidátka na prezidenta Spojených států ve volbách 2008.
 


Deset nejnavštěvovanějších hlasování

3. září 2009 v 15:49 | peace
Zde vidíte 10 hlasování s největším počtem hlasů podle mezinárodního hlasovacího portálu Electionsmeter.com. Připojte i vy své názory! Kliknutím na název hlasování budete přesměrováni a hned po přihlášení můžete hlasovat, vkládat komentáře a odkazy týkající se toho co Vás zajímá.




The religious belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity.



Legalize Cannabis Flowering plant used for medicinal purposes and as a psychoactive. Marijuana. The cultivation for recreational use is outlawed in most countries.



Capitalism versus Socialism Capitalism is an economic system in which capital goods are owned, operated and traded by private individuals, businesses, or corp. ...



Afghanistan war The war began on October 7 2001 as the U.S. military operation was launched in response to the September 11, 2001 attacks.



Euthanasia Assisted death can be recognised as a reasonable solution to one in last stage. Euthanasia should be humanized and legalized!



Popularity European Union I like the European Union or I don't like EU. Vote online!


Political situation in the EU Click, if you are satisfied with the political situation in the European Union. Say, why?



Global climate change (warming) Long-term significant change in the "average weather", believe that it is man-made polution.

Political situation in China I am satisfied with the political situation in China. / I'm dissatisfied with the political situation in China.



Popularity China 我喜欢中国 I like China / I don't like China. Explain why?

Biden Hits a Nerve in Russia

31. července 2009 v 19:45
MOSCOW (July 27) - An interview U.S. Vice President Joe Biden gave to an American newspaper was front-page news Monday in Moscow, where his characterization of Russia as a weakened nation hit a raw nerve.
Biden said Russia's economic difficulties are likely to make the Kremlin more willing to cooperate with the United States on a range of national security issues.

"I think we vastly underestimate the hand that we hold," he said in an interview to The Wall Street Journal published Saturday.
Biden's comments appeared to catch the Kremlin by surprise, coming less than three weeks after President Barack Obama said on a visit to Moscow that the U.S. wants to see a "strong, peaceful and prosperous Russia."
"It raises the question: Who is shaping U.S. foreign policy? The president or members of his team, even the most respected ones?" said Kremlin foreign policy adviser Sergei Prikhodko.
White House spokesman Robert Gibbs on Monday downplayed suggestions that Biden was setting a different U.S. policy from that laid out by the president.
When asked whether Obama thought Biden had gone too far in his remarks, Gibbs said the president stated his views on Russia during his recent visit and the vice president agrees with those views.
Gibbs said both leaders believe Russia will do its part to improve relations with the U.S.
Most Russian newspapers put Biden's interview on their front pages Monday, with headlines casting doubt on Washington's commitment to forge a more constructive relationship with Moscow.
"Joe Biden unexpectedly returned to the rhetoric of the previous Bush administration," the newspaper Kommersant wrote.
Moskovsky Komsomolets said Biden, with his "boorish openness," showed what the Obama administration really thinks about Russia. "We should respond to the Yankees in the same way," the newspaper wrote. "Any other language, unfortunately or fortunately, they do not understand."
The papers jumped on Biden's comments about Russia's demographic and economic problems.
"They have a shrinking population base, they have a withering economy, they have a banking sector and structure that is not likely to be able to withstand the next 15 years, they're in a situation where the world is changing before them and they're clinging to something in the past that is not sustainable," Biden said in the interview.
Some newspapers and commentators noted that Russians say the same things about themselves. The question, they said, was why Biden made the comments so quickly after this month's summit by Obama and President Dmitry Medvedev, and after Biden's own trip last week to Ukraine and Georgia, former Soviet republics whose growing ties to the West are deeply resented in Moscow.
Sergei Rogov, director of the government-funded USA and Canada Institute, was quoted in Kommersant as saying the interview was aimed in part at addressing criticism in the U.S. that the Obama administration was too soft on Russia.
Some commentators said it was wrong to see Biden as diverging from the policy set by Obama, as suggested by Prikhodko.
Biden was most likely expressing Washington's "Plan B," said Vladimir Milov, a former deputy energy minister who now heads his own think tank. If the Kremlin proves unwilling to compromise, the United States was likely to reduce relations to a minimum and push Moscow to the periphery of world politics, Milov wrote in the online Gazeta.ru.

U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton made an apparent effort Sunday to reassure Moscow, saying on NBC "Meet the Press" that the administration considers Russia to be a "great power."
"Every country faces challenges," she said. "We have our challenges, Russia has their challenges. There are certain issues that Russia has to deal with on its own."


NJ Political Figure in Scandal Found Dead

31. července 2009 v 19:41

JERSEY CITY, N.J. (July 29) - A political consultant who was one of 44 people arrested last week in New Jersey's massive political corruption scandal has been found dead in his apartment.

Hudson County prosecutor Edward DeFazio says a relative found the body of 61-year-old Jack Shaw in Jersey City and called police Tuesday evening.
Federal prosecutors had accused Shaw of taking $10,000 in bribes from a government informant and proposing the cooperating witness make a $10,000 campaign contribution to an unnamed Jersey City official.
DeFazio told The Jersey Journal newspaper of Jersey City the death doesn't appear to be a homicide. He says an autopsy will determine the cause of death.



State Senator Quits After Intern Affair

31. července 2009 v 19:37
NASHVILLE, Tenn. (July 29) -- A Tennessee lawmaker resigned from the state Senate on Tuesday after his extramarital affair with a 22-year-old intern was revealed by an investigation into an extortion case.
"Due to recent events, I have decided to focus my full attention on my family and resign my Senate seat effective August 10," Republican Sen. Paul Stanley wrote in his resignation letter.

Court records show that Stanley, 47, told agents investigating a blackmail case that he had a sexual relationship with intern McKensie Morrison. Her boyfriend, Joel Watts, is charged with trying to extort $10,000 from Stanley in April. Investigators say Watts demanded the money in exchange for not releasing to the media explicit photos of Morrison that Stanley had taken in what appears to be Stanley's apartment.
The senator, a married father of two who represents suburban Memphis, had signaled he would remain in the legislature, but he said Tuesday that he decided to step down about an hour before submitting his resignation letter. Stanley, who was elected to the Senate in 2006 after serving six years in the state House, had resigned last week as chairman of the powerful Senate Commerce Committee.
A special election will be held to fill the seat in the Republican-controlled Senate.
Stanley's legislative proposals were largely focused on pro-business issues, but he also sponsored failed measures to ban gay couples from adopting children. He also spoke out against funding for Planned Parenthood because he said unmarried people should not have sex.
"Whatever I stood for and advocated, I still believe to be true," he said during an interview Tuesday with Memphis radio station WREC-AM. "And just because I fell far short of what God's standard was for me and my wife, doesn't mean that that standard is reduced in the least bit."
Morrison's phone numbers are redacted from her legislative internship application, and efforts to reach her were unsuccessful Tuesday. Her father said he didn't want to talk about the situation.

"It's a family matter, and I'm going to approach it that way," Will Morrison said.
According to court records, Morrison is married to a man who is serving a seven-year prison sentence in Florida but that he has filed for divorce.
Watts said in an interview with a Nashville TV station last week that he blamed Stanley for taking advantage of Morrison.


New revelations in 'torture' case

31. července 2009 v 19:29
An MI5 officer visited Morocco three times at the same time a UK resident says he was being tortured there as a terrorist suspect, it has emerged.

Former Guantanamo Bay detainee Binyam Mohamed is bringing test case claims against UK authorities which, he says, were complicit in his alleged torture.
The government says it did not know he was held in Morocco and Afghanistan before being taken to the US camp.
MI5 says its official did not know Mr Mohamed was in Morocco at the time.
The details emerged in a High Court judgement on Friday, which was an update on a ruling on the secret evidence in Mr Mohamed's case, originally made last year.









UN: Civilian Deaths Up 24 Percent In Afghanistan

31. července 2009 v 19:24
The United Nations said Friday the number of civilians killed in conflict in Afghanistan has jumped 24 percent so far this year, with bombings by insurgent and airstrikes by international forces the biggest single killers.

In a grim assessment of the first half of 2009, the U.N. assistance mission in Afghanistan said the Taliban and other anti-government militants have become more deadly by shifting from ambush attacks to suicide bombings, roadside explosives and targeted assassinations.

It warned that more civilians would likely be killed as insurgents try to battle a troop increase by the administration of President Barack Obama, and seek to destabilize the country before presidential and Provincial Council elections on Aug. 20. The summer is also typically the worst for fighting in Afghanistan.

Insurgent attacks are "frequently undertaken regardless of the impact on civilians in terms of deaths and injuries, or destruction of civilian infrastructure," the 21-page report said, ascribing 595 civilian deaths to the Taliban and other "anti-government elements" over the first six months.

Many of those died in suicide attacks or roadside bombs near "civilian traffic, residential compounds and marketplaces."
The United States and Western powers have become more deadly, too, partly because insurgent groups are taking cover in residential areas or luring U.S.-led forces into unintentionally killing civilians, the U.N. said.
The Taliban and others are "basing themselves in civilian areas so as to deliberately blur the distinction between combatants and civilians, and as part of what appears to be an active policy aimed at drawing a military response to areas where there is a high likelihood that civilians will be killed or injured."
The report said international forces have given high priority to minimizing civilian casualties, but along with Afghan forces have killed 310 civilians. Of those, 200 were killed in 40 airstrikes. The total death toll _ including those which couldn't be attributed to either side _ of 1,013 civilians is 24 percent higher than in the same period in 2008, and 48 percent higher than in 2007.
The U.N. tally is higher than an Associated Press count of civilian deaths based on reports from Afghan and international officials showing that 453 civilians have been killed in insurgent attacks this year, and 199 civilians died from attacks by Afghan or international forces. An Afghan human rights group says an additional 69 civilians died during a U.S. attack in Farah province in May, but the U.S. disputes those deaths.

Along with insurgents and Western nations, the government of Afghanistan shares responsibility "for a rising toll in terms of civilian deaths and injuries and destruction of infrastructure, including homes and assets, which are essential for survival and the maintenance of livelihoods."
The report said civilian deaths rose every month this year as compared with 2008 except February, as insurgent forces sustained attacks throughout the winter in a break from previous years when there was a lull in fighting. Other factors were the increased fighting in urban areas, more complex Taliban attacks and the return of militants fleeing warfare across the border in Pakistan. The intensified operations by U.S. forces was also cited.

May was the deadliest month, with 261 civilians killed. The Taliban and other insurgents were responsible for most of the deaths, but 81 were killed by government or international forces, the U.N. said.

The South has been the worst region as a result of instability in Pakistan and the increase in U.S. activity. Only six civilians were killed in the West of the country in April, but that figure soared in May as a result of airstrikes in Bala Baluk, Farah Province, that killed at least 63 women and children, according to the report.
The U.S. estimated that 60-65 Taliban and 20-30 civilians were klled in the battle.
The U.N. also noted what it called a "new trend" in insurgent attacks. Since May, they have attached magnetic explosive devices to vehicles to target civilians who have worked with government or international military forces. Examples were the killing of a Provincial Council candidate May 29 in Khost and, a month later in separate attacks, of a translator and another individual working for the international forces.

Insurgents have become increasingly sophisticated as well. The report said there has been a rise in coordinated attacks using explosive devices and suicide bombers to target government ministries and offices, "with the intention of incurring the largest amount of casualties." In those attacks, civilian government workers were deliberated singled out and shot, despite clearly being noncombatants, it said.
Music shops and other places selling "immoral" goods such as DVDs have been targeted. In an April attack, a young boy was killed when a bomb placed in his wheelbarrow exploded prematurely 15 meters from a government building in Aybak city. The boy had no knowledge of the bomb, the report said.

On the other side, the report said that two-thirds of the deaths caused by the Afghan government forces or its international allies came in airstrikes. Most casualties resulted from the use of close air support when troops met insurgents in villages or when armed fighters took up positions in residential areas.

The report said civilians in insurgent-dominated areas can rarely refuse shelter to a militant commander or his men, because of intimidation or traditional codes of hospitality. The Taliban and others take advantage of these factors to use civilian homes as cover and deter attacks, or to lead the government or international forces into killing civilians.
International forces have been more forthcoming about acknowledging civilian casualties, but the report expressed continued concern about their "capacity or willingness to provide information" about some incidents.
The U.N. said the report was compiled by its Afghan mission's human rights unit, and drew on independent monitoring and investigation of incidents where civilians were killed in conflict zones. It is the third year the global body has conducted such analysis in Afghanistan.

U.N. human rights chief Navi Pillay called on the Afghan government, international forces and insurgents to do more to spare civilians and to "ensure the independent investigation of all civilian casualties."



Iran Activists Dread Midnight Knock Of Police Raid

31. července 2009 v 19:21
Iran's human rights activists say they live in dread of the midnight knock on the door or the car that pulls up next to them on the street, fearing that at any moment they might be arrested in the government's post-election clampdown.

They take precautions: moving only in small groups of two or three and positioning themselves near corners where there are several routes to make a dash for safety. They avoid telephones, purge e-mails and frequently change passwords.

"We fear for our lives. We can be detained at any moment," said Zahra Saeidzadeh, a human rights activist, in a telephone interview from Tehran.

"There's not much more we can do," she said, adding that the government is intent "on silencing us."

The crackdown unleashed after the disputed June 12 election went far beyond the young protesters who took to the streets crying fraud in the vote. The government has used the opportunity to target a wide range of figures who have long been a thorn in its side _ pro-reform politicians, critical writers and the community of activists who have long pressed for greater civil liberties and rights for women.

They have been picked up from their homes or offices in nighttime raids, or off the street, sometimes during protests but often not.
Several thousand people have been arrested in the nearly 7-week-old crackdown. The number still in prison is unclear. Several weeks ago, authorities put the figure at 500, but since then there have been more arrests. In recent days, officials have made several large releases and moved to put others on trial.
Leaders of grass-roots civic campaigns in Iran are no strangers to government pressure. For years they have been subject to surveillance, intimidation and imprisonment.

For example, the "Million Signature" campaign _ a group pressing for changes in Iran's laws on women _ regularly sees its leaders and workers arrested, hit with huge bail amounts and barred from travel abroad. But still they were able to build their networks.

The post-election crackdown, however, feels different, and activists fear this time the government intends to completely crush them.

"They're trying to instill fear in the movement to make us give up the fight," said Mahboubeh Abbasgholizadeh, a women's rights activist who has been detained repeatedly in the past.

"They raid homes after midnight and take away people. When you go to bed, you don't know if it's your turn, you just wait for that knock on the door," she said.

The detentions take away important organizing skills from activist groups. Also, several well-known human rights lawyers who usually represent jailed activists have themselves been imprisoned since the election.

"We don't know if we're going to win or lose this battle. We feel a great sense of insecurity. We also have immense anger. We are very, very angry," Abbasgholizadeh said.

But she said the opposition was unarmed "while they have batons, tear gas and guns. It's an unequal war."
The mass protests erupted over claims that President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's election victory was fraudulent, but they have turned into an unprecedented expression of anger at Supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei and his clerical leadership.
Rights activists joining the marches said they take special precautions, because they know they might be targeted.
They stand near street corners to have open escape routes and wear sunglasses, Abbasgholizadeh said. Security forces often identify protesters by their loose pants and running shoes, so activists wear ordinary clothes and carry shopping bags to avoid looking like they're part of the protest.

One well-known documentary filmmaker even put on an all-enveloping chador so she could hide her camera to film the protests, Abbasgholizadeh said, declining to identify the woman for fear she would face government reprisals.

Another activist, who asked not o be identified for fear of arrest, said her colleagues participate in demonstrations in small groups of two or three rather than together.
Before joining a protest, they change their Facebook usernames, make sure their e-mail inbox is empty and computers are clear and reformatted. They give power of attorney to close relatives or friends to use their bank accounts to post bail or deal with other financial matters.

Activists who are arrested are often forced by police to give up their e-mail passwords so authorities can scrutinize their contacts. So colleagues will step in and change the password of anyone who's been caught.

In addition, activists use two or three cell phones with temporary SIM cards to communicate with one another _ and even then, only rarely, since they fear the phones are tapped. E-mail is the preferred method of communication, but only on a secure server.

During a demonstration earlier this month, veteran rights lawyer Shadi Sadr was snatched off the street. A car pulled up to her and plainclothes men beat her and dragged her into the vehicle, according to her mother.
Sadr was released on June 28. Friends say she told them this imprisonment was much more difficult than past detentions. She refused to comment to the media on her detention a sign of the fear among activists about talking in the current atmosphere.

Human rights activists are not involved in organizing the mass protests or connected to opposition leader Mir Hossein Mousavi or other reform politicians, said Abbasgholizadeh. But since the election, activists who may have been focused on a particular issue like women's rights have broadened their role, issuing statements and writing articles on the general political turmoil, she said.
Women, who by law must wear the Islamic headscarf and live under other restrictions, have played a major role in Iran's human rights community and in the post-election upheaval. Under Ahmadinejad's presidency, a government order limited the number of female students to half the university places, instead of the 65 percent they previously had occupied.

"If women weren't so oppressed, they wouldn't now be at the forefront of this movement. They have been suffering for years from imposed veil, from the fact that they cannot study their university courses, and cannot participate in many public places and events," said Abbasgholizadeh.



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